The underdog coronavirus vaccines that the world will need if front runners stumble

As leading pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies fast-track COVID-19 vaccines through clinical trials, smaller developers face a battle to get their candidates noticed.

The science journal Nature takes a look at the second group of vaccines under development that are in development. Few experts expect the first vaccines to be approved to be effective for everyone so it is important to have many more in the pipeline.

There are more than 320 COVID-19 vaccines in development, according to a recent tally by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI) in Oslo, a fund created to finance and coordinate vaccines for outbreaks. Most of these are in the early stages of preclinical development; several dozen are in clinical trials, and only a handful have begun final-phase tests for efficacy.